Rainforests - this is more than 50% of all green spaces of the planet. Over 80% of animal and bird species live in these forests. Today, deforestation of the rainforest is happening rapidly. The figures are terrifying: more than 40% of trees have already been cut down in South America, and 90% in Madagascar and West Africa.

Ecological problems of Baikal

Baikal is located in the eastern part of Siberia, is an ancient lake, whose age is approximately 25 million years. Since the pond is very deep, it is a great source of fresh water. Baikal provides 20% of all fresh water reserves on the planet. The lake fills 336 rivers, and the water in it is clean, clear.

Forest exploitation

Scientists say that anthropogenic activity negatively affects the state of nature. Ecological problems of forests are one of the global problems of our time. If the forest is destroyed, then life will disappear from the planet. This needs to be realized by those people on whom the preservation of the forest depends. In ancient times, people revered the forest, considered it the breadwinner and treated it with care.


Mangroves are evergreens that grow in the tropics and in the equatorial belt. They grow in conditions of high humidity, mainly on the banks of rivers. Mangroves create a kind of border between land and water. Many species of animals and birds find shelter in mangroves.

The nature of Tatarstan

The Republic of Tatarstan is located on the territory of the East European Plain and is part of Russia. The entire relief of the republic is predominantly flat. The forest and forest-steppe zone is located here, and the Volga and Kama rivers flow. The climate of Tatarstan is temperate continental. Winter is mild, the average temperature is -14 degrees Celsius, but the minimum drops to -48 degrees.

The nature of Khakassia

The Republic of Khakassia is located in the southern part of Siberia, occupies part of the Chulym-Yenisei and Minusinsk hollows. There is a mountainous area, and plains, hills and elevations. On the territory there are semi-deserts and steppes, taiga and forest-steppes, alpine meadows and tundra high in the mountains, where a unique and amazing nature has formed.

The nature of Kalmykia

Kalmykia is located in the southeastern part of Russia, lies in the zone of steppes, deserts and semi-deserts. The territory is located in the south of the East European Plain. Most part is occupied by the Caspian lowland. The western part is the Ergenin Upland. There are several rivers, estuaries and lakes in the republic, among which the largest is lake.

Nature of Bashkortostan

The Republic of Bashkortostan is located in the Urals and in the west of the Southern Urals. Various landscapes are spread on its territory: in the center are the ridges of the Ural Mountains; in the west part of the East European Plain; in the east - Trans-Urals (combination of elevation and plain). The climate in Bashkortostan is temperate continental.

The nature of Mordovia

The Republic of Mordovia is located in the east of the East European Plain. The relief is mostly flat, but there are hills and elevations in the southeast. In the west is the Oka-Don plain, and in the center is the Volga Upland. The climate zone of Mordovia is temperate continental.

Coniferous forests

Coniferous forests - this is a natural zone, which consists of evergreens - coniferous trees. Coniferous forests grow in the taiga of Northern Europe, Russia and North America. In the highlands of Australia and South America, there are coniferous forests in some places. The climate of coniferous forests is very cold and humid. According to international classification, the following types of coniferous forests exist: evergreen; with falling needles; present in boggy forests; tropical and subtropical.

The nature of Udmurtia

Udmurtia is located on the territory of the East European Plain and is part of Russia. The territory is covered both by hills and hills, so by river valleys and lowlands. The taiga and subtaiga landscape is presented here. Udmurtia is located in the temperate continental climate zone. Winter is harsh, snowy and frosty, the average temperature is -15 degrees Celsius, and a minimum of -40.

Rainforest plants

The world of rainforest flora is enormously diverse. Among the trees that grow on the coast you can find a coconut tree. Their fruits - coconuts are very useful, they are used in cooking and cosmetology. Coconut tree Here you can find different types of banana plants that people use as fruits and vegetables, depending on the stage of ripening.

Equatorial forests

Equatorial forests are located in the equatorial regions of the earth. They are located in the following corners of the planet: Africa - in the river basin. Congo Australia is the eastern part of the continent; Asia - The Great Sunda Islands; South America - in the basin of the Amazon River (Selva). Climatic conditions Mostly forests of this type are located in the equatorial climate.


Rainforests are a special natural area, which is characterized by a huge variety of species of flora and fauna. Forests of this type are found in Central and South America, in Africa and Asia, in Australia and on some islands of the Pacific Ocean. Climatic conditions As the name implies, tropical forests are located in a dry tropical climate zone.

Environmental soil problems

Over the past several millennia, human activity has done little damage to the environment, but after the technical revolutions the balance between man and nature has been disrupted, since since then natural resources have been intensively used. Soil has also been depleted as a result of agricultural activities.

Sahara Desert

One of the largest and most famous deserts on the planet is the Sahara, which occupies the territory of ten African countries. In ancient writings, the desert was called "great." These are endless expanses of sand, clay, stone, where life is found only in rare oases. Only one river flows here, but there are small lakes in oases and large reserves of groundwater.

Deciduous forests

Broad-leaved forests are characteristic of the temperate climatic zone. These forests are located at the following points on the planets: cover the western and eastern parts of Europe; found in Central Russia; on the Japanese islands; in the northern part of China; in North America; in southern South America; in New Zealand.

Mixed forests

Mixed forests are a natural area that is characteristic of a temperate climate. Broadleaf and coniferous trees grow here at the same time, which is why the forest has such a name. The location of forests of this type on the planet: North America - the north of the USA, the south of Canada; Eurasia - in the Carpathians, in the south of Scandinavia, in the Far East, in Siberia, in the Caucasus, the sulfuric part of the Japanese islands; South America; New Zealand is part of the islands.

The largest swamp in the world

The largest swamp in the world is a group of Vasyugan swamps, which are located between the Ob and Irtysh rivers in Western Siberia. This natural site will soon be included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The total area of ​​the swamp is 53 thousand square kilometers, which, for example, is larger than the territory of Switzerland.

Ecological problems of the Aral Sea

Modern reservoirs have many environmental problems. Experts say that many seas are in a difficult ecological state. But the Aral Sea is in a catastrophic state and may soon disappear. The most acute of the problems of the water area is a significant loss of water. Over fifty years, the area of ​​the reservoir decreased by more than 6 times as a result of uncontrolled land reclamation.