Yora belongs to the order Passeriformes. About 12 species of birds are described. Three of them are endemic to Indomalaysia.
External signs of yora
Yora are small and medium-sized birds, ranging from 11.5 to 15.5 cm in length. Weight on average is about 13.5 g. Males are larger than females and differ in the color of plumage.Black-winged Yora (Aegithina tiphia).
Females with olive green head and back. The bottom of the body is dull yellow, the forehead is yellow, the eyebrows are olive green. The wings are greenish. The tail is olive.
Males at the top have plumage of dark green or black color.
Abdomen is very bright yellow. The wings are black with white tips. The tail is dark. After molting, males have a black crown and a dark back. Yor's legs are thin. In flight, white areas are visible in birds due to overlapping long side feathers.
Yors live in India and Southwest China, Southeast Asia. These birds can be found throughout almost the entire Indian subcontinent, Sri Lanka, South Yunnan, southwestern Guangxi and China. They live in Myanmar, on the Malay Peninsula, inhabit the islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Palawan.This genus of birds preferably lives in forests, gardens and fruit plantations.
Yor habitats include light forests, forest edges, secondary forests, gardens, mangroves. Birds are also found on farmland.
As a rule, they inhabit low-lying areas, but can rise into the forests of the foothills. They lead a tree lifestyle and are usually found in the crowns of trees.
Yors are omnivorous birds, but prefer insects. They catch spiders, moths, collect caterpillars from leaves.
Yora eat berries and fruits of epiphytes growing on tall trees, such as mistletoe.
They hunt for flying insects. These birds behave as restless, active hunters during feeding.
They carefully examine the leaf blades not only from above, but look at the underside of the leaves. Therefore, sometimes yorams have to hang upside down on branches.Yors often form flocks with other species of birds.
Features of the behavior of yor
Outside the breeding season, yoras fly in pairs or small flocks and are constantly looking for food. They feed on trees, while raising a characteristic noise, talking to each other with a pleasant whistle. Their presence is easily detected not only by a loud whistle, but also by the red feathers that birds lose. Bright color plumage is not noticeable only among the dense crown of the tree, where yoras hide in case of danger.
Yoras breed from April to June. Iora monogamous birds. Males acquire a bright mating plumage of yellow color. They perform acrobatic flips in the air, loosening all feathers, especially on the back.
The entire ritual of courtship of the female is carried out to the accompaniment of whistling and hissing.
First, the birds jump from a branch to a height of 1 to 2 meters, spiral down, as if by parachute, while recalling the "green balls of fluff." After that, the male spreads its tail like a peacock a little, dropping its wings. The effect of such a performance is enhanced by the bright colors of the plumage of males. It seems that colorful balls fly in the air. Upon returning to their original position, the birds lower their tail and wings.The female and the male participate in the incubation and feed the chicks.
A bird's nest is arranged on a fork at the end of a branch of a small tree. This is a small, loose, deep bowl. It is made of grass, fibers, felt material, bonded on the outside with an adhesive web. In the clutch there are from two to four pale greenish eggs with red - brown spots and purple strokes.
Hatching lasts 14 days and another 11 days the parents feed the offspring before leaving the nest. Then the chicks stand on the wing and get their own food.
Yor conservation status
Yors are widespread and do not belong to birds that are in danger of extinction. On the contrary, with the expansion of the areas occupied by gardens, fields, gardens, the area of settlement of these birds increases.
At first, Iora were considered mangrove birds, but nowadays, almost all types of places are found, with the exception of a dense forest.
Perhaps yora escaped extinction due to their food specialization, birds feed mainly on insects. Unlike other passerine birds with beautiful plumage, they are not traded for keeping in cages. A rare species - green yora is on the IUCN red list. The main reason for the decrease in the number of this species is the degradation of the natural habitat.
The value of yor in ecosystems
Yors destroy harmful insects not only in forests, but also in parks and orchards. These birds can be found not only in the suburbs, but also in large cities such as Singapore.