Gabronate (Habronattus calcaratus) belongs to the arachnid class.
The distribution of gabronate.
Gabronathus lives on the Cumberland Plateau, which is a vast area with forests, further to Alabama, Tennessee and Kentucky to the north through Maine and in parts of Canada. The range extends westward into the region of great lakes located in the midwestern United States. Gabronate was recently found in western Minnesota in a county of about 125 miles. This species of spiders is found far in the south in Florida and is a fairly common species in the extreme southeastern United States.Gabronate (Habronattus calcaratus)
Gabronate is found mainly in the eastern part in temperate forests, with deciduous trees, including oak, maple and birch. This type of spider spreads in areas with an average continental elevation within the observed geographical range from sea level to high places in the Appalachian Mountains (2025 meters). Gabronate mainly settles on the soil, but also often lives among the vegetation where it finds food.
External signs of gabronate.
Gabronate differs from other representatives of the genus Habronattus by the presence of a white stripe in the center of the abdomen. Adult spiders have a length of 5 to 6 mm, while males weigh about 13.5 mg, and females have a slightly larger body weight. Males have a hook-like structure on the third pair of limbs and, as a rule, are smaller in size of the body than females.
The color of the females disguises them as the color of the environment, which allows them to easily merge with the landscape.
Usually there are three subspecies of gabronates described depending on the geographical range. Habronattus c. Calcaratus lives in the extreme southeastern United States, it is brighter, but less resistant to low temperatures than other subspecies. Habronattus c. maddisoni is located in the eastern and northeastern United States and in parts of Canada and has a smooth dark chitinous cover. Habronattus c. agricola resembles N. S. maddisoni but differs in a bright white stripe.
Propagation of gabronate.
Gabronates exhibit complex behaviors during courtship and mating. The males acquire a bright color and emit vibrating signals that accompany the courtship dance. Moreover, competition appears among males when choosing a partner. The reproduction of gabronate spiders has not been sufficiently studied. After mating, eggs develop inside the female before she places them in a spider cocoon for further development.
As a rule, gabronates spiders have one reproductive cycle, after which the laid eggs are protected by the female, she leaves the clutch after a short time.
Due to the relatively short life span and several molts, young spiders mature and breed late. Although females lay many eggs, only a small part of the offspring is hatching and surviving to the adult stage.
Females protect eggs and young spiders for some time for several molts before they become independent. Gabronates, as a rule, do not live longer than one year and usually die after breeding. After the final molt, young spiders are already able to breed, they disperse in new territories.
Gabronates tend to hunt prey throughout the day using exceptional vision. They have a high degree of determination of the specificity of production. These spiders can distinguish between various prey, after only one first meeting with her.
Gabronates chase the victim, disguising their movements, and attack once, often jump back if they meet strong resistance.
A slowly crawling caterpillar is the preferred target of attack, since it hardly escapes the spider. Gabronate hunting skills improve as experience gains and spiders age. The hunting area should be relatively small, given that the size of an adult spider is only 5 to 6 mm in length. Gabronates have the most magnificent sight among invertebrates. Spiders have a total of eight eyes, so they view the area in several directions, and this is important for an attack on prey. During the breeding season, males are guided by sound signals to find a female.
Gabronates are predators that actively pursue and prey on live prey, mainly on other arthropods, including small spiders and insects. They are able to make jumps during an attack along a length 30 times the length of their body without special enlarged muscles. This rapid leap occurs at the moment of instant change in blood pressure in the limbs of these spiders. This ability to jump gives an important advantage to spiders when catching prey and contributes to the survival of the species.
The ecosystem role of gabronate.
Gabronates eat a variety of arthropods, many of which are plant pests. Therefore, this species of spiders in forest ecosystems controls the number of harmful caterpillars and butterflies that damage leaves, shoots, and fruits. Gabronates are hunted by larger species of spiders and birds. Males attract unwanted predators with their bright color. Females are more vulnerable and attacked, as they are larger than males and are the best prey for predators. However, the females are painted in dark shades, which serves as a reliable camouflage in the environment, while the noticeable coloration of the males makes them easy targets for attacking enemies.
The value of gabronate.
Gabronate spiders are an example of biodiversity and help control the number of insect populations in the range of their habitat. These spiders can be considered as a species that should be used in agriculture to effectively control pests of field crops. This natural pest protection is called the biological method of controlling insects dangerous to plants.
The conservation status of gabronate.
Gabronate does not have a special environmental status.