The territory of South America is extremely rich in a variety of species of vegetation and animals. This diversity is due to the presence in a large part of the territory of rainforests and quite comfortable climatic conditions. In large sections of South America, there is a huge variety of life forms, and some of them are still unknown to scientists.
The total area of the continent is 17.84 million km², and due to the subequatorial and tropical climate, with well-defined dry and wet seasons, a large number of mammals live here.
Agouti - a rodent of tropical forests in appearance resembles a large guinea pig with a very small tail and a rough coat, which is richly covered with oily substance. Agouti has five fingers on its front legs, and three fingers on its hind legs.
An animal that has characteristic bright spots around the eyes that stand out against the general background of dark brown or black fur. This species is easily identified thanks to very clearly visible spots-marks in the chest area.
Mammals with an unusual appearance have a not very noticeable hairline on the sides and in the abdomen, and also have a shell consisting of very rigid stripes. Armadillos use long claws to search for food.
The only serious swimmers from the Kunyi family are distinguished by smooth and streamlined bodies, have slightly smooth and very long tails, which, when moving from one side to the other, help the otter to easily control its body in water.
The mammal has an elongated snout that resembles a tube and allows you to get food in the form of ants and termites. The largest animal from the Toothy order is distinguished by its hair, which is represented by very thick and rather thick hair.
The representative of the Feline family is also known by the names of cougar and cougar. The largest wild cat in the subfamily is a principled lone predator, which converges with a couple exclusively in the mating season, but not more than one week.
The graceful mammal from the family Camelids prefers to settle in open and dry mountainous areas or in flat areas. Guanaco has a very calm and peaceful character, making it easily tamed by people.
The largest rodent on our planet is characterized by long and thick coat of light brown color and slightly webbed feet. The semi-aquatic herbivore of the family Aquinus was initially mistakenly classified as a pig.
The mammal with rather small paws and slightly webbed fingers that end in very sharp claws has a dense and thick coat that keeps the body of the animal in a dry state, as well as a tenacious tail with noticeable pubescence.
Dwarf marmosets are mischievous and incredibly agile monkeys, one of the smallest primates on the planet. A completely tenacious tail part helps the mammal moving on all extremities to easily maintain balance in the process of jumping over trees.
A marsupial well-floating and tree-climbing animal from the possum family is born underdeveloped, and then grows inside its mother’s bag. Warm and safe bag looks like a pocket that opens on top or near the tail.
Smooth, very powerful and beautiful mammal animal is the largest representative of the Cat family in the New World. The jaguar is able to inhabit not only trees, but also on the ground, and the animal goes on a hunt both during the day and at night.
A rodent from the family Bristly Rats, which has short ears and a short tail, as well as wide incisors. The color of the back from black to golden brown. The belly has a tan coloration with whitish marks.
Birds of south america
On the territory of South America, there are simply countless birds, so it is not without reason that this part of the planet is often called the "bird's continent". Birds that live near water bodies often belong to the order Ciconiiformes, and the mountainous regions are inhabited by endemic species of birds.
One of the most famous representatives of birds and a peculiar symbol of the Andes is characterized by black plumage and the presence of characteristic white marks on the edges of feathers and in the neck. A long-lived bird nests on high mountains and rocky ledges.
The bird, belonging to the indigenous feathered Andes, lives in swamps and lakes located at an altitude of more than three thousand meters. Such birds settle mainly on land, but when the first signs of danger appear, the goose prefers to escape on the water.
The large-sized waterfowl is distinguished by its red paws and is an inhabitant of the lakes located on the South American plateau Altiplano. In fact, flightless birds create their huge nests in close proximity to high-mountain lakes.
The bird from the Charadriiformes family lives in the South American Andes, and during the nesting period it lives in swamps and swampy meadows. The small bird has a black head, differs in white plumage on the neck and black feathers on the body, as well as a gray abdomen.
The flightless big bird settles among meadows of Patagonia and on the Andean plateau. The feathered one has a long neck and legs, a small head and body. Andean bird feeds mainly on vegetation, but sometimes can eat a variety of insects.
The South American species is characterized by a rather long tail, rounded wings and a long, very strong beak. Shiloklyuvy woodpecker nests in very large colonies, and uses a fairly wide range of different sounds to communicate with congeners.
The bird with bright plumage settles in the Andean cloud forests. Males have a colorful scarlet or orange plumage and a crest of the same color, and females have a darker plumage. Nests are created in protected rocky ledges.
A large songbird from the Tyrannian family has a brown plumage on the upper side of the body, a head with black and white stripes and a yellow stripe in the crown area, a white throat and a yellow lower side. The feathered bird has a thick and short black beak.
Predatory omnivores from the Falcon family are characterized by bare skin on the “face” and a weak, almost unbent beak. On rather long paws, there are weak fingers ending in flat and relatively sharp claws.
The only species of the genus from the Parrot family has a green main color of plumage, and the feathers on the back of the head and in the nape of the head are mobile and elongated, carmine-colored, rising in the form of a “collar” with pale blue bordering.
The representative of the heron family resembles an ordinary heron, but has a more slender body. The head is relatively large, with an unusually thick beak. The plumage of the body is mainly dark gray and pale gray.
The bird of the equatorial territory from the Goacinidae family has brown-brown plumage with white or light yellow mottles. A crest is present on the head, represented by narrow and pointed feathers with light yellow clearly visible borders.
A seabird from the Olushevy family, which lives in the tropics and has bright blue swimming membranes, which is a hallmark of the species. The wings and tail are pointed and usually quite long.
A large bird from the Gokko family. Adult males have mainly black plumage, and a yellow fleshy outgrowth is present on the base of the beak. A crest is presented on the head, represented by noticeably curved feathers.
South America is the wettest continent of the planet. The territory is replete with a wide variety of reptiles and amphibians that feel comfortable on the plains, as well as the plateaus and highlands of the continent.
"Water boa" is the most massive snake in the world of modern fauna. The main body color is grayish-green with a pair of rows of roundish or oblong large brown spots. On the sides of the body there are smaller yellow spots, surrounded by black rings.
The representative of the Iguanova family, living on rocky slopes, characterized by rare xerophytic vegetation. Pale konolof inhabits burrows, feeds on a wide variety of vegetation, including flowers and cactus shoots.
A species of lizards, common in highlands on cliffs and shrubs, leading a terrestrial lifestyle. The color of the animal varies depending on age characteristics. Adult lizards are dark brown in color with yellowish lines.
Smooth Cayman Cuvier
The inhabitant of shallow areas with the presence of a relatively fast current can be found in still and deep water, as well as in flooded forest zones. The length of an adult individual of one of the smallest of all living crocodile species does not exceed 160 cm.
The representative of the Already family has a small head, a slender and laterally compressed body, green staining. On the sides there are varying degrees of severity longitudinal keels, which are formed by the bends of individual scutes on the belly and sides of the body.
The land tortoise is large, flattened on top of an elongated shell with a noticeable extension at the back. The color is dark brown, on each shield there is a very blurry yellow spot.
The largest representative of the genus of spearhead snakes with a dense, but slender body, having a brown or gray color with a bright yellow chin and clear large rhombuses in the back, trimmed with a black stripe.
A snake with a small oval head, medium-sized eyes with round pupils covered with a translucent shield. The mouth is small, poorly adapted for strong stretching, and small claws are located on the sides of the anus.
A lizard that can spend much of its time in water, and on land, an iguana basks in the sun. On the surface of the stones, the animal is held with powerful claws. Excess salt, which is swallowed with food, the lizard removes special glands through the nostrils.
A snake from the Already family has a narrow head and a slender cylindrical body covered with smooth scales. Adult individuals have a completely black color, and young snakes are red with a black "hat" and a white "collar".
A daytime lizard characterized by long fingers with sharp claws. The head of the males has a crest characteristic of the species. An excellent swimmer runs well and fairly quickly, easily developing speeds of up to 10-11 km / h.
Reptiles from the family of teid and suborder of lizards have well-developed limbs, a thin and long tail. The back is gray, brown or brown with stripes on the sides or with one strip along the body. The belly is pink or dull white.
Poisonous snake from the subfamily Yamholovye and the Viper family. The dangerous scaly reptile has a wide and massive head, a slender and strong body, round eyes with vertical pupils.
The poisonous snake from the Boidae family has a bright green color with white spots in the back. Sometimes representatives of the genus have a rather thin white line that runs along the ridge.
A beautifully colored small lizard from the Tropiduridae family that lives on trees in the tropics of South America. It has a short and thick head with a crest in the occipital part and a throat tensile sac on two sides of the neck.
The southern part of the continent in America, is located mainly in the southern and western hemispheres of the planet. In the west, it is washed by the Pacific Ocean, on the east - by the Atlantic, and in the north - by the waters of the Caribbean Sea, due to which a huge number of fish live here.
Freshwater fish from the Aravanova family and the Aravanidae order, having a very flattened laterally and ribbon-like body, covered with large scales. Fish feed on their small brethren, and fly flying insects are caught by jumping insects.
Freshwater radiant fish from the Piranha subfamily is today the largest representative of the haracinovye. The body is tall, noticeably compressed laterally. The color of the species varies from black to gray.
A freshwater fish with a disc-shaped, laterally compressed body and an upward-directed mouth, which is distinguished by a protruding lower jaw with irregular teeth. The body is silvery or with a partially greenish-silver color.
A large fish that lives mainly in tropical shallow waters and near coral reefs. Giant Atlantic groupers feed mainly on crustaceans and fish, and also use octopuses and young sea turtles for food.
Fish from the Gorbylevye family is large, has an elongated body of a dark gray color with a silver belly. The tail and fins are yellow. It feeds on various crustaceans, small fish and shrimp.
A freshwater flock of ray-finned fish with a flat body of dark silver color and the presence of three transverse stripes of black color. The anal fin of ordinary thorns in appearance resembles an expanded fan of black coloring.
Viviparous ray-finned fish from the Pecilia family are widely used in modern aquariums. Many species of such freshwater fish in the back of the body have a round or markedly elongated spot.
The radiant-fresh-water freshwater fish from the Shell-catfish family is distinguished by the presence of two pairs of antennae on the upper lip. The back and fins are pale brown with a large number of dark spots, and the abdomen has a pinkish-golden color.
The fish from the Aperonotaceae family is predominantly a nocturnal solitary predator, has an almost completely black color, with the exception of a pair of white rings that are located near the caudal fin, as well as a light spot in the nose.
Gray angel fish
The representative of the angel fish family is distinguished by a body of light gray color with the presence of dark gray spots on each flake. The throat, abdominal and pectoral fins are dark gray in color, and the caudal fin has a blue border.
The freshwater flock of haracephae from the Kharatsinovy family is distinguished by its bright color, does not linger at a specific place, constantly moves to the surface of the water or drops sharply in the direction of the bottom soil of the reservoir.
Ray-finned fish from the Shell Catfish family.The aquatic inhabitant has an elongated body, which is slightly flattened from the sides, covered with a pair of rows of special bone plates. This fish has three pairs of mustaches on the upper and lower jaw.
The freshwater ray-finned fish from the Kharatsin family is distinguished by a white-yellow belly and a dark, narrow strip running along the body. The back area is olive in color with a brown tint, and the translucent fins are yellow-green in color.
The radiant-fresh-water freshwater inhabitant from the family Multi-leaved and order Perch-like in appearance resembles fallen leaves of yellow-brown color. On the upper part of the lower jaw there is a fixed and forward antennae.
The representative of the Cikhlov family is characterized by small size. The average body length of an adult rarely exceeds 60 mm. By its color, the Bolivian butterfly resembles a closely related, but smaller species of the microgeophagus of Ramirez.
Spiders of south america
In the tropical regions of South America, a large number of arachnids live, which differ in their size, lifestyle and are representatives of a variety of families. Some spiders belong to the category of poisonous and deadly for humans, as well as some animals.
The araneomorphic horse spider is small in size. The arachnid is pubescent with thin and short hairs, as well as longer sparse hairs. The cephalothorax is characterized by a dark gray, almost black color, and the abdomen is brown and gray.
Representatives of the araneomorphic spiders of the superfamily Araneoidea. Females of some species possess pedipalps reduced to non-segmented appendages. Small arachnids are able to build trapping nets up to 30 mm long.
Small in size spiders from the family Caponiidae, differing in body length within 2-13 mm. Representatives of this genus usually have six eyes, but some species have five, four, three, or only two eyes.
Hay mowing spiders have eight eyes, a dark-colored body of brownish-earthy, orange-yellow or greenish color, very long legs. The abdomen is usually short-cylindrical and pointed, rarely long-cylindrical in shape.
The tarantula spider from Theraphosinae subfamily is represented by 22 species. The arachnids are quite peaceful and unpretentious in home maintenance, which are quite widespread among domestic beginners keepers.
A medium-sized tarantula spider is distinguished by the presence on the body of protective burning hairs of pointed and lanceolate shape, reddish in color, with characteristic notches. The spider got its name in honor of the Indians of Cancuamo and Gabriel Garcia Marquez.
A black widow from the family Spider-webbed spiders inhabits agricultural land and can penetrate into a person's dwelling. Females of black color with a characteristic red mark in the abdomen. A poison of the neurotoxic type, neutralized by existing antidotes.
A medium-sized tarantula spider, known for its characteristic defensive behavior. Uses crickets and other insects, small lizards and various rodents, including mice.
The representative of the genus Spider-horses and the subfamily Dendryphantinae in appearance strongly resembles a leaf beetle (Chrysomelidae). The arachnid arthropod was named in honor of the leader of the Indians Sassacus, who lived in the XVI-XVII centuries.
Representative of the genus araneeomorphic spiders belonging to the subfamily Aelurillinae and the family Spider-horses (Salticidae). Three species are included in the genus, which differ in small and medium body sizes, with a length in the range of 5-11 mm.
A small-sized spider belonging to the genus Nops and the family Caponiidae. The maximum body length of the female does not exceed 7.0-7.5 mm. First described more than a century ago by a French arachnologist, the species got its name in honor of Marc de Matan.
Representatives of the genus Araneomorphic spiders and subfamilies Dendryphantinae from the family of spider-horses (Salticidae). Currently, in addition to the spiders, which previously belonged to the genus Uspachus, some more arachnids, formerly belonging to the genus Euophrys and Phiale, are included.
The territory of South America impresses with a wide variety of fauna, among which insects have become quite widespread. Some types of insects are dangerous for humans, so meeting them can be fatal for humans.
The representative of the elephant family is characterized by black color with several longitudinal rows of dots, and the convex and compressed elytra from the sides have a golden green color. The body is characterized by thinning towards the back and a triangular chest shield.
The butterfly of the tribe Brassolidae is an inhabitant of the tropics and subtropics with predominantly dark, brown colored wings, often having a blue or purple tint. Such a butterfly on the underside of the wings has a pattern in the form of a complex pattern.
The most remarkable and largest representative of the genus from the stag family. The beetle has a golden-green body with a metallic tint and brown elytra, and the sting of the male is long, split near the base, with small notches.
Large sized night butterfly. The representative of the Erebidae family is characterized by wings with a white or light gray background, on which there is a pattern formed by alternating dark (usually brown and brown) smear spots.
Small insect winged insect from the family Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae). The quarantine object is highly variable and widespread. Adults have a yellow body color, white without spotted wings, light yellow tendrils and legs.
One of the largest insects on the planet, a representative of the barbel family, has a flat and wide, flattened body, which in the lateral projection is characterized by the shape of a lens. The relatively large head of the beetle is directed forward and straight.
The largest member of the genus Lamellae have a body covered with sparse hairs. The area of the head and pronotum is black, with a pronounced sheen. The color of the elytra varies depending on the indicators of environmental humidity.
Small dragonfly from the genus Pantala and the family These dragonflies belong to the category of very high flying and widespread dragonflies. The head of the insect is yellowish-red in color, and the chest has a yellowish-golden color with dark marks.
The staphylinid beetle from the subfamily Staphylininae inhabits organic rotting remains and fungi, as well as mammalian and carrion excrement, where the adults and the larval stage of the bronze point hunt other carrion and dung insects.
Day butterfly, a representative of the Sailfish family, is characterized by a wingspan in the range of 100-130 mm. On the brown-black or dark main background of the wings there are wide strips of bright yellow color, and on the lower wings there are yellow rounded spots.
Representative of the most dangerous invasive species of ants, which, thanks to humans, has spread widely throughout the world. Monochrome, brown or yellowish-brown insects adversely affect the diversity of the native fauna and harm people.