Features and habitat of the spider spider
Spider cross belongs to the family of orbiting. The spider was named after this unusual name because of the large noticeable cross on the back formed by bright spots.
The abdomen of the “flycatcher” is of the correct round shape, most often brown, but it also occurs white crosswhose abdomen is light yellow or beige. Long legs are very sensitive to the slightest vibrations of the web.
At spider cross four pairs of eyes, arranged so that the insect has a 360-degree view. However, his vision leaves much to be desired, a spider can see only shadows and fuzzy outlines of objects.
Spider species a lot - around 2000, only 30 of them are found in Russia and the CIS, and everyone can boast a pronounced cross on the upper abdomen.
The size of a female individual can vary from 1.5 to 4 centimeters (depending on belonging to a particular species), male - up to 1 centimeter. Surprising is the mixed cavity of the body of the insect - the myxocele, which appeared as a result of the connection of the primary cavity with the secondary.
One of the most common types is the ordinary cross. A female of this species can reach 2.5 centimeters in length, males are much smaller - up to 1 centimeter. The abdomen in males is rather narrow, in females it is large and round. The color may vary slightly, adjusting to the lighting at a given time.
The body of the spider is covered with a special wax, which helps to preserve moisture. Cross spider female It has reliable protection - the cephalothorax shield, and eyes are located on it.
Preferred habitats are always quite moist and humid. It can be forests, fields and meadows near swamps and ponds, groves, gardens, sometimes human buildings.
The character and lifestyle of the spider spider
Most often, for a permanent place of life, a spider chooses the crown of a tree. Thus, he immediately arranges both a hunting net (between branches) and a shelter (in thick leaves). Cross spider web clearly visible even at a certain distance, it is always round and even and quite large.
The economic crosspiece carefully monitors the condition of the threads in the web and always updates it every few days. If the large web becomes a trap for the insect, which the spider can’t do, it breaks the threads around its prey and removes it.
Replacing the old trap with a new one most often occurs at night, so that by morning it would be ready for hunting. Such a distribution of time is also justified by the fact that at night the spider’s enemies sleep, without any danger, he can do his job calmly.
It would seem how an almost blind spider can erect such complex structures in complete darkness! However, in this case it is not based on vision, but on touch, which is why the network is always so smooth. Moreover, the female weaves the net according to strict canons - the same distance between the turns is always observed in it, there are 39 radii, 35 turns and 1245 connecting points.
Scientists have found that this ability is laid down at the genetic level, the spider does not need to learn this - it performs all movements unconsciously, automatically. This explains the ability of young spiders to weave the same web as adults.
The consequences of a bite of a spider cross can be unpredictable, since its poison is toxic not only to insects, but also to vertebrates. The composition of the poison includes hemotoxin, which has a negative effect on the red blood cells of animals.
It is worth noting that dogs, horses and sheep are resistant to a spider bite. Due to the fact that the poison is toxic, and also that spider crosses bite and can even bite through the skin of a person, there is an opinion that it is dangerous for people.
But, these are all prejudices. Firstly, the amount of poison released during one bite is too small to harm a large mammal, of which man is. Secondly, the poison acts on vertebrates reversibly. So for man spider cross is not dangerous (the exception is people with individual intolerance).
Nutcracker Spider Nutrition
The main diet of the crosses consists of a variety of flies, mosquitoes and other small insects, which he can eat about a dozen at a time. A sticky substance is first released from the spider's web wart, which only in the air becomes a strong thread.
A cross can produce and spend about 20 meters of silk per fishing net. Moving along the web, its owner only touches radial threads that are not sticky, so he does not stick.
During the hunt, the spider waits in the center of the trap or is located on the signal thread. When the victim sticks to the network and tries to get out, the web begins to vibrate, the hunter senses even the slightest vibration with sensitive limbs.
The spider injects a dose of poison into the prey and, depending on the situation, can eat it right away or leave it for later. If the insect acts as a backup source of food, the cross is wrapped in cobwebs and securely hides in its shelter.
If a too large or poisonous insect falls into the trap, the spider breaks the web and disposes of it. The crosspiece avoids contact with insects that lay eggs on other insects or animals, as a large spider abdomen can be a great place for larvae.
The spider’s digestion process takes place in the victim’s body through digestive juice. On its own, the cross, like other spiders, cannot digest food.
Reproduction and longevity of a spider spider
Cross spider male small, nondescript and most often dies after its very first mating. That's why on the picture most often the female gets cross - big and beautiful.
The search for a companion spider begins in the fall. It is located on the edge of its web and creates a slight vibration. The female recognizes the signal (does not take it for prey) and approaches a spider.
After mating, the female prepares for masonry, weaving a reliable strong cocoon, where later in the fall she will lay all her eggs. Then the mother reliably hides the cocoon, in her chosen place the eggs hibernate and only in the spring spiders appear.
All summer they grow up, experiencing several molting processes and are ready to continue the genus only by next fall. The female usually lives up to this point.
In an ordinary cross, the breeding period begins a little earlier - in August. The male also looks for a mate, attaches a signal thread to her web, yanks it, creating a certain vibration by which the female recognizes it.
If she is ready for the mating process, she leaves her familiar place in the center of the trap and descends to the male. After a few seconds, the action is completed, however, in some cases it can be repeated. In the fall, the female makes a laying in a cocoon and hides it, then dies. Having wintered, spiders are born in the spring. In the summer they grow up and experience another wintering.
Only by the next summer they become adults and are ready for procreation. That is why a clear answer to the question “how much does a spider live a cross"No - it all depends on whether a particular individual belongs to a particular species.