If you love to breed fish at home, then representatives of the cichlid family will be an excellent option. It has more than 100 subspecies, perhaps the most colorful and unpretentious of them, this cichlomas.
Breeding aquarium fish is one of the most popular hobbies. Those who love peace and relaxation are just what they need. Watching the fish pacifies, relaxes, energizes. It was the cichlid family that proved itself on the good side. They are not fastidious in leaving, are rarely exposed to diseases, friendly.
Description and features of cichlazoma
Tsikhlazoma - a subspecies of fish from the family of "cichlids" (beak-feathers), belong to the order "perch-like". Between themselves, the species differ in size, color and shape of the body. IN description of cichlomas there must be a signature stamp "vertebrates". Many of them are on the verge of extinction.
In vivo habitat cichlazoma fish extends from the water bodies of the United States to the rivers of Brazil. The fish is distinguished by excellent health among its relatives. It has a compacted shell, because harmful bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms rarely get under the skin.
A tsikhlazoma is, in fact, a continuous muscle, an elongated trunk, flattened sides. Most of the head is occupied by a large mouth, bulging eyes and gill openings. The skin is quickly regenerated and restored, wounds and abrasions are actively tightened.
Aquarists love cichlase fish for compact size, brightness of colors and lines on the body, interesting behavior and a minimum of care. Moreover, the fish are smart and endowed with some intelligence.
Requirement for care and maintenance of cichlazoma
In nature cichlomas lead a pair lifestyle, therefore it is important to provide for content a separate aquarium, or partitions in a tank. You can put 2-3 pairs of the same type in one vessel.
This subspecies lays eggs on flat stones. The couple has a well-developed parental instinct, so do not particularly bother them for the period of waiting for offspring. The inside of the aquarium or tank is designed in such a way as to imitate the natural conditions of rivers and reservoirs.
For arrangement suitable theme "rocky coast." It is important that there are a lot of stones, barriers, grottoes, underwater snags and the like. Fish loves to hide in secluded places.
Plants inside the pond can be planted, but aquarium cichlazoma often digs up animals and eats. They prefer algae with hard leaves and a strong root system or artificial greenery. Optimum water temperature + 20 ... 28 ° С.
Particular attention is paid to the acidity and hardness of water. They should be in the range of pH 6.8-8.0 and dH 8-30 °. Lighting is installed regularly, direct sunlight should not be exposed, they must be scattered.
During spawning, the created pairs behave very interestingly, this can be observed not only in the video, but also in a photo cichlase. They spend all their free time looking for a place to lay eggs.
A careful aquarist will be able to recognize the created pair and it must be relocated for the duration of the breeding. If there are no stones, then the fish lays eggs directly on a flat surface of the bottom.
The fish have no particular preferences, it is omnivorous. By their nature, cichlids are predators, therefore they prefer animal feed. This suggests that cichloma cannot be kept together with small fish, especially from other families.
To maintain excellent health and well-being, fish are given plant food. You can use specialized food in the form of dry granules, seafood, cereals, plant foods and earthworms.
The daily feeding should contain: 70% protein food and 30% vegetable. In addition to substrates, it is possible to give mixtures (minced meat) from products prepared with your own hands: poultry meat, seafood, herbal additives.
Types of Cichlase
Fans of aquarium fish have identified the most interesting and original types of cichlase.
* Tsikhlazoma "black-striped" - This fish is the calmest among all cichlids. They can often be seen in many aquariums. It has a small body size, sophisticated color, transverse black stripes masterly placed on the body. Virtually non-aggressive, only during spawning can show acute anxiety.
* Cichlazoma "diamond"- a fish from the cichlid family, reaches a length of 15 cm. It is a fairly large representative, has a magnificent, incomparable color. Spots of silver color cover the entire body, they are bordered with a black stripe, giving a special elegance.
* Tsikhlazoma "Eliot"- a medium-sized fish, lives in the clean rivers of Guatemala and Mexico. The body is painted in bright lemon color, stripes of a different shade pass along the perimeter of the side. The optimum temperature regime is + 25 ... 28 ° С.
* Tsihlazoma "Managuan" - one of the largest and most powerful cichlids, reaches a size of 30-40 cm. For its unusual color, it is called a "jaguar", spotted plaque gives the fish elegance, but also a great appearance. Contain it only in large aquariums.
* Tsikhlazoma "Meeka" - medium-sized fish, reaching 13-15 cm. The upper part of the body is painted in a silver shade. Males on the abdomen and in the lower part of the head have distinctive red spots, they are larger than females. They like calm, if necessary, zealously conquer the territory.
* Tsikhlazoma Severum - A bright and colorful representative of cichlids. The dimensions of the body are compact and small, about 10-15 cm. The structure of the whole body is elegant and harmonious, immediately attracting the eye. The name was obtained due to the fact that the fish was found in the northern regions. Differs in special aggression in group contents. Only a skilled aquarist can save the flock with the help of a huge aquarium and competent zoning of fish.
* Tsikhlazoma "Sedzhika" - a fish from the cichlid genus, has an average size of 10-12 cm. The most peaceful and shy among their relatives. The body is painted in light brown color, fins are pale yellow, transverse stripes pass on the sides.
* Tsihlazoma "flamingo" - a representative of small cichlids 8-15cm. Fish is interesting for its color. The main one is pink, there are specimens painted in pale or saturated colors. Males are almost twice as many females, their frontal part is powerful. The only subspecies that boasts a peaceful character.
* Tsikhlazoma "rainbow" - a large representative of cichlids, reaching 20 cm. It has an elongated trunk, flattened lateral parts. A huge head, with a huge mouth and bulging eyes. The color is dominated by yellow, green and red tones. Spots with many shades are randomly scattered throughout the body. The tail and fins have a black trim.
* Tsikhlazoma "bee" - a medium-sized fish (8-10 cm), the homeland is the Rio Negro River and the Amazon. The subspecies is interesting in the unusual coloring of the body - black with a bright blue overflow. This is due to the fact that each black flake has a blue speck that creates the effect of a “mirror”.
* Tsikhlazoma "Nicaraguan" - large cichlid in size (up to 20 cm). It has an unusual body structure, the head is convex, the mouth is too low. The color of the fish is interesting: the body is silver, the head is blue, and the abdomen has a purple color. The content is not whimsical, relatively peaceful.
Compatibility of cichlazoma with other fish
One cannot say about all subspecies of cichlids in terms of neighborhood. Since cichlazoma is a predatory fish, aggressiveness in it is from nature. It is territorial, especially during the spawning season. Combined cichlazoma with other fish larger in size, it simply absorbs small ones.
If you contain several pairs of the same subspecies in one aquarium, then it is necessary that the capacity be large (more than 400 l). Inside, with the help of stones, you can build some kind of dampers, they will serve as a division of the area. This procedure is absolutely not suitable for all subspecies, but for most cichlids, yes.
Reproduction and sexual characteristics of cichlosis
During the mating season, the couple tries to take cover as far as possible. Changing the usual temperature to warmer is a sign for spawning. The female lays eggs on stones, a flat surface, or in pits. Fry cichlomas ready to swim already on the fifth day.
Almost all subspecies of cichlids male cichlazoma larger than the female. Its distinctive feature is the fatty tubercle on the forehead. The most noticeable sign of the male is a bright color. Experienced specialists in aquarium fish determine their sexual characteristics by fins.
Buy cichlazoma possible in any pet store, this type of fish is popular and always in stock. In specialized markets you can buy a lot of useful things: from aquariums and accessories to feed and additives.
Price fish cichlazoma is 200-300 rubles, it all depends on the type and color. Engaged in the sale of aquarium fish (cichlase) is a profitable business. Demand for them is growing every year and once again proves that it is useful and informative.