Siberian beetles are tritons belonging to the beetle family. They live in a vast territory. The northern part of the range reaches Yakutia and the Urals. They were found in the tundra, almost in the Arctic Ocean.
The southern part of the range affects the north of Japan, China, Korea and Mongolia. In the west, Siberian coals live from the Volga region to the Arkhangelsk region. They are also found in the Urals, the Trans-Urals, the Far East, Siberia, Kazakhstan, Kamchatka, Chukotka and the Kuril Islands.Siberian Coral Tooth (Salamandrella keyserlingii).
Description of Siberian Coals
The maximum length of the body of the Siberian coal toot reaches 72 millimeters, and taking into account the tail, it reaches 162 millimeters.
The tail is usually shorter than the body, but sometimes it can be longer. 12-14 transverse grooves are located on the sides of the body. Normally, on the paws of these newts should have 4 fingers, but three or five-fingered individuals are found. Such individuals are often distinguished as an independent species.
The color of the upper body and sides is brown in color with a variety of transitions from smoky to golden. The belly is light. Some individuals have dark specks on their bodies. Although several forms of these newts living in China and Russia have been described, they have not received recognition, therefore, at the moment, they do not distinguish subspecies of Siberian coals.Siberian coal-toothed is the only amphibian well adapted to life in the permafrost zone.
Habitats of Siberian Coals
Most often, Siberian coals have chosen lowlands and valleys with rivers, small lakes and swamps as habitats. They are found in various forests: birch, coniferous, mixed, alder and broad-leaved. They also come across in towns, cities, parks, along railways, and the like.
Siberian chippers are environmentally plastic, that is, they can live in different conditions. So in Kamchatka they live on the Uzon volcano, on Sakhalin in hills overgrown with bamboo, in Mongolia in the steppes near the rivers, and in the Kuril Islands in the funnels of air bombs flooded with water.In the experiment, young coals have undergone hypothermia up to −6 °.
Mostly they prefer shrubby or wooded areas, but also occur in open areas.
Lifestyle Siberian Coals
Adults lead a hidden life, and they show activity at dusk or at night, during the day they hide in a variety of shelters. Larvae are active throughout the day.
When the snow begins to melt, the coral teeth appear on the surface, in different latitudes, this happens from March to June. A feature of this type of newts is the ability to tolerate low temperature, they do not lose activity at 0 degrees. Therefore, they can live even at the North Pole.Siberian coilers are most active at dusk and at night, when they feed on terrestrial animals: worms, pulmonary mollusks, and insects.
During the experiments, during which an artificial wintering was created, the toothed teeth did not die even at a temperature of minus 35-40 degrees. They were found even in permafrost. One adult was pulled out of a block of ice, and she came to life, her age was 90 years. That is, in a state of suspended animation, their organisms can function for a long time.
Larvae feed on mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic insects. Adults that live on land eat insects, earthworms, mollusks, and other invertebrates.
Siberian coilers leave for wintering in August-November, which depends on the latitude of weather conditions. They hibernate under fallen leaves, in empty stumps, deadwood and soil. In this case, they can occur singly or in groups. Winter hibernation in the coals lasts 5-8 months.The masonry of the Siberian coal-toothed is located on snags, aquatic plants. Caviar development - up to 4 weeks, in the same number of larvae develop.
Reproduction of Siberian Coals
Already a couple of days after wintering, the angliot begin to reproduce. They spawn eggs from 2 to 4 weeks. Females lay eggs in shallow water, choosing areas with vegetation that are well warmed by the sun.
These newts are characterized by peculiar courtship courtship. The male embraces a twig in the water and begins to make lateral movements, bending the tail with a wave, so he attracts the attention of the female.
The masonry of the Siberian lump has the form of spiral bags that connect together. Caviar bags are attached to the stems or branches of plants shallow in the water. Over time, the bags swell and significantly increase in size. Females bring a different number of eggs - in some cases there can be 14 eggs in a clutch, and sometimes their number reaches 170 pieces. The color of the eggs is dark gray.In the process of mating, the male holds the female with its paws and tail, like a hook.
The duration of the embryo development process depends on the temperature of the water. Larvae can begin to hatch after 2-4 weeks, but most often the development process takes 2-3 months. They have well-shaped feathery gills, there is a fin fold, and an oar fin appears between the fingers. In the process of further development, the blades and balancers disappear. Metamorphosis takes 2-3 days. After metamorphosis, Siberian mullet reach a length of 20-60 millimeters, and weigh from 100 to 900 mg.
The maximum life expectancy in the nature of Siberian coals is 13 years.
The number of Siberian coals and their conservation status
These newts are a very common species, and in places their numbers are very wide. But in certain areas, for example, in the Amur region, Siberian lumps are rare.After the second winter, tritons begin puberty.
They live in several reserves. This species is not listed in the Red Book.
Species similar to the Siberian Coral Tooth
The Siberian Coral Tooth shares its habitat with the Ussuri tritons, but the shape of the tail and teeth differs in the Siberian Coral Tooth.
From ordinary and crested newts, Siberian miter teeth are distinguished by the presence of 4 fingers on their hind legs, the shape of palatine teeth and clearly visible warts on the sides of the body. With the other species of caudate reptiles, Siberian coals have not been ascertained, since they are geographically isolated.